Age Changes in Enamel, Dentin and Pulp

 Age Changes in Enamel, Dentin and Pulp

Definition

Ageing is defined as a process of morphological and physiological disintegration as distinguished from infant, childhood and adolescence which are typified by processes of integration and coordination.

Major Tissues of the Tooth 

Age changes in Enamel Dentin and Pulp-Dental Books

AGE CHANGES IN ENAMEL

AGE CHANGES IN ENAMEL Dentomedia

MACROSCOPIC

1. Becomes darker

2. Attrition, Abrasion, Erosion

3. Longitudinal cracks

MICROSCOPIC

1. Decreased 

  • Enamel rod ends
  • Perikymata
  • Permeability to fluids

2. Increase in nitrogen and fluorine

3. Increased resistance to decay

MACROSCOPIC CHANGES

1. COLOUR

  • Becomes darker with age.
  • Associated with changes in the organic portion of enamel, presumably near the surface.

Age Changes in Enamel Dentin and PulpAge Changes in Enamel Dentin and Pulp

2. ATTRITION, ABRASION AND EROSION

ATTRITION- Physiologic wear of the occlusal surfaces and proximal contact points as a result of mastication. Characterized by a loss of vertical dimension of the crown and by flattening of the proximal contour.

age changes in enamel dentin and pulp


Causes

  • Masticatory stress
  • Para-functional habits

Stages of Attrition

Stage I- Enamel wear at cusps and incisal edges without dentin exposure.

Stage II- Enamel wear and dentin exposure on incisal edges and there is isolated area over the individual cusps.

Stage III- Wear of enamel forming a broad strip on incisal edges and therefore the confluence of two are more areas of wear and tear over adjacent cusps.

Stage IV- Wear of enamel and dentin on incisors to make a plateau on the teeth to make a central area of dentin surrounded by a peripheral rim of enamel.

ABRASION- Pathological wearing away of tooth through abnormal mechanical processes.

age changes in enamel dentin and pulp


Examples-

  • Abrasive dentifrice
  • Occupational
  • Improper flossing

EROSION- Loss of tooth substance by a chemical change that doesn't involve known bacterial action.

-Lingual erosion Example- 

  • Chronic vomiting
  • Acidic carbonated beverages

-Labial erosion

3. LONGITUDINAL CRACKS

  • May be developmental in origin.
  • Although their numbers don't increase with age , they become more obvious.

Site-specific thickness of enamel

Age Changes in Enamel, Dentin and Pulp


  • Thinning of enamel at the extent of cementoenamel junction.
  • Thickening at the incisal edge (maximum facial-palatal width) due to wear with advancing age.
  • This results in an overall reduction in the height of the tooth crown.

MICROSCOPIC CHANGES

1. PERIKYMATA

  • Transverse wave like grooves which lie parallel to every other and also to cemento -enamel junction.
  • There is completely covering of the surfaces of unerupted and recently erupted teeth with pronounced rod ends and perikymata.
  • In Advanced age, there are slower flattening of perikymata and generalized loss of rod ends which will eventually lost.
  • More rapid loss of structure occurs on Facial and lingual surfaces of Anterior teeth

Age Changes in Enamel, Dentin and Pulp



PERMEABILITY TO FLUIDS AND WATER CONTENT

Age Changes in Enamel, Dentin and Pulp

2. INCREASE IN NITROGEN AND FLUORIDE

Age Changes in Enamel, Dentin and Pulp


AGE CHANGES IN DENTINE




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